Open Access

Monitoring of pesticides water pollution-The Egyptian River Nile

  • Hesham Dahshan1Email author,
  • Ayman Mohamed Megahed1,
  • Amr Mohamed Mohamed Abd-Elall1,
  • Mahdy Abdel-Goad Abd-El-Kader1,
  • Ehab Nabawy1 and
  • Mariam Hassan Elbana1
Journal of Environmental Health Science and Engineering201614:15

https://doi.org/10.1186/s40201-016-0259-6

Received: 4 February 2016

Accepted: 3 October 2016

Published: 7 October 2016

Abstract

Background

Persistent organic pollutants represent about 95 % of the industrial sector effluents in Egypt. Contamination of the River Nile water with various pesticides poses a hazardous risk to both human and environmental compartments. Therefore, a large scale monitoring study was carried on pesticides pollution in three geographical main regions along the River Nil water stream, Egypt.

Methods

Organochlorine and organophosphorus pesticides were extracted by liquid-liquid extraction and analyzed by GC-ECD.

Results

Organochlorine pesticides mean concentrations along the River Nile water samples were 0.403, 1.081, 1.209, 3.22, and 1.192 μg L−1 for endrin, dieldrin, p, p’-DDD, p, p’-DDT, and p, p’-DDE, respectively. Dieldrin, p, p’-DDT, and p, p’-DDE were above the standard guidelines of the World Health Organization. Detected organophosphorus pesticides were Triazophos (2.601 μg L−1), Quinalphos (1.91 μg L−1), fenitrothion (1.222 μg L−1), Ethoprophos (1.076 μg L−1), chlorpyrifos (0.578 μg L−1), ethion (0.263 μg L−1), Fenamiphos (0.111 μg L−1), and pirimiphos-methyl (0.04 μg L−1). Toxicity characterization of organophosphorus pesticides according to water quality guidelines indicated the hazardous risk of detected chemicals to the public and to the different environmental compartments. The spatial distribution patterns of detected pesticides reflected the reverse relationship between regional temperature and organochlorine pesticides distribution. However, organophosphorus was distributed according to the local inputs of pollutant compounds.

Conclusions

Toxicological and water quality standards data revealed the hazardous risk of detected pesticides in the Egyptian River Nile water to human and aquatic life. Thus, our monitoring data will provide viewpoints by which stricter legislation and regulatory controls can be admitted to avoid River Nile pesticide water pollution.

Keywords

Monitoring Organochlorine pesticides Organophosphorus pesticides River Nile Human hazardous risk

Background

Over fifty years pesticides were used in African countries for combating and controlling agricultural pests [1]. Among African countries, Egypt is one of the intensive pesticide use areas. Thus, the main water supply (River Nile) is loaded with various types of persistent organic pollutants (POPs).

Nowadays, POPs represent about 95 % of the major industrial sectors in Egypt as raw and fabricated metals, vehicles, pharmaceuticals, textiles, pesticides, fertilizers, petrochemicals, cement, paper and pulp, and food processing [2].

Organochlorine pesticides represent an important group of POPs, which are believed to be possible carcinogens as well as endocrine disruptors [3]. Due to its hazardous risk, the United Nations Environmental Program (UNEP) has initiated a prospective for reducing these threatening chemicals worldwide as agricultural sectors have forced to be shifted towards organophosphorus pesticides instead of organochlorine. However, these compounds are more toxic to vertebrates than other classes of insecticides [4].

In Egypt, the River Nile ecosystem is of particular interest since river water is the main source of drinking for about 90 million citizens and also the main way for irrigation of agricultural lands. The monitoring and assessment of pesticide water pollution have been well studied in North America, Japan and many Europe countries [5]. However, studies on freshwater aquatic environments in Egypt are scanty especially the large-scale monitoring studies. A former study was carried in 1995 on freshwater aquatic environments along the River Nile revealed that DDT, HCH, and PCBs were detected [6]. Furthermore, inconstancy of organochlorine residues in Nile water during the period from 1982 to 1998 was reported in literatures [7, 8]. For our point of view, no data about the River Nile pesticides water pollution is available since 1998.

As monitoring of pesticide water pollution is an substantial source of information describing the current state of environmental pollution and reflecting the effectiveness of environmental legislation policies, our study was conducted to obtain a large scale monitoring data on spatial distribution of selected organochlorine and organophosphorus pesticides in water samples collected at 20 sampling sites along the River Nile stream and the major delta lakes of Egypt.

Methods

Study area

A large-scale monitoring study was conducted on organochlorine and organophosphorus residue levels in water samples collected at 20 sampling sites along the River Nile, Egypt (Fig. 1). Sampling regions were selected according to the locations of major agricultural and industrial activities. Three geographical regions along the River Nile stream were selected as follows; Greater Cairo, in which about 50 % of all industrial activity is concentrated & Nile Delta, the majority of agricultural lands are located and the remaining industrial activity rests (vehicles, textiles, fertilizers, food, detergents) and & Nile estuaries at Damietta and Rosetta, in which textiles, furniture, pesticides, food factories are the main national income. From Greater Cairo, seven sampling sites were selected. Meanwhile, from Nile Delta, Nile estuaries seven and six sampling sites were selected, respectively.
Fig. 1

Map of the River Nile showing sites of water sampling: Greater Cairo; 1. Alwasta-Beni Sweif, 2. Helwan, 3. Cairo, 4. Alaeat-Giza, 5. Giza town, 6. Alknater-Giza, 7. Qalubiya& Nile Delta; 8. Monofea, 9. Belbas, 10. Benha, 11. Alazezea-Menya Elkamh, 12. Menya Elkamh town, 13. Zagazig, 14. Mansoura& Nile estuaries; 15. Fraskour-Damietta, 16. Damietta town, 17. Ras El-bar, 18. Gamasa, 19. Rosetta town, 20. Edfina-Rosetta

Sample collection

During the summer of 2013, a total of 60 water sample were collected from the River Nile sampling sites (3 samples each). Water samples were collected using 2.5 L amber glass bottle at 50 cm below water surface. Water samples were filtered through 0.45 μm fiber glass filters to remove sand and debris (WHATMAN) [9, 10].

Reagents and standards

Reagents used are; solvents including, n-hexane, acetonitrile, ethanol, and dichloromethane (all solvents were pesticide residue (PR) grade and were purchased from Alliance Bio, USA. Alliance Bio, USA); florisil 60–100 mesh (Sigma, USA); and sodium sulfate anhydrate (El Nasr Pharmaceutical Chemical Co, Egypt). The individual reference standards used for quantification and identification of organochlorine and organophosphorus residues were obtained from Dr. Ehrenstorfer GmbH (Augsburg, Germany).

Analytical procedures

Extraction

Liquid-liquid extraction was used according to procedures described by APHA [11]. Water sample was extracted twice. In each, A 60 mL volume of 15 % methylene chloride in n-hexane was introduced into a 2 L separating funnel containing 1 L of filtered water and shaken vigorously for 5 min. The combined extracts were dried over anhydrous sodium sulfate and concentrated to about 1 mL in a rotary evaporator.

Clean up

Water extract were cleaned and fractionated on florisil; 20 g of 0.5 % activated florisil was poured into a column topped with 1 g anhydrous sodium sulfate to remove remaining water from the sample. The florisil column was washed with 50 mL n-hexane before the sample loaded. To recover p, p’-DDE, the column was eluted with 60 mL of 30 % methylene chloride in n-hexane (First fraction). The second fraction was achieved by column elution with 35 mL of 30 % dichloromethane in hexane and after that with 45 mL of 50 % dichloromethane in hexane to elute all organochlorine pesticide residues in the samples. Each fraction was evaporated in the rotary vacuum evaporator until the volume reached 2–3 mL [12, 13]. However, to determine the residues of organophosphorus pesticide, the water sample extract was injected in gas chromatography for analysis without clean up.

Quantitative determination

Quantitative analysis of pesticides was carried out at Residue Analysis Department, Central Agri. Pesticides Lab, Dokki, Egypt using an Agilent gas chromatograph 6890 coupled with a HP-5MS (Agilent, Folsom, CA) capillary column of 30 m length × 0.25 mm internal diameter × 0.25 μm film thickness, Agilent). Chemstation software was used for instrument control. A 63Ni-ECD detector was used for analysis. The GC system was operated in a splitless mode. The column oven temperature was programmed as follows; the oven temperature was programmed from an initial temperature 180 °C (2 min hold) to 220 °C (1 min hold) at a rate of 5 °C/min, then finally to 280 °C at a rate of 9 °C/min. the oven was maintained at 280 °C for 30 min. The temperature of the injector operating in splitless mode was held at 260 °C while the detector temperature was 320 °C. The carrier gas was ultra pure nitrogen at flow rate of 4 mL/min. The target compounds were identified on the basis of the retention times of individual authentic standards.

Quality assurance and quality control

The quality of organochlorine and organophosphorus pesticides was assured through the analysis of solvent blanks, procedure blanks and triplicate samples. LOD and LOQ data in the GC-ECD was presented in Table 1. Sample of each series was analyzed in triplicates.
Table 1

Analyzed pesticides, limits of detection and limits of quantification data in the GC-ECD (μg/L−1)

Pesticides

LOD

LOQ

α-HCH

0.005

0.015

γ-HCH

0.004

0.012

Aldrin

0.003

0.009

Heptachlor

0.003

0.009

Endrin

0.003

0.009

Heptachlor epoxide

0.003

0.009

P, P’-DDE

0.003

0.009

Dieldrin

0.002

0.006

P, P’-DDD

0.003

0.009

P, P’-DDT

0.004

0.012

Ethoprophos

0.005

0.015

Phorate Diazinon

0.003

0.009

Dimethoate

0.005

0.015

Pirimiphos-methyl

0.005

0.015

Chlorpyrifos

0.005

0.015

Fenitrothion

0.004

0.012

Quinalphos

0.005

0.015

Prothiofos Ethion

0.005

0.015

Triazophos

0.004

0.012

Fenamiphos

0.005

0.015

Results and discussion

Pollution of the River Nile water by pesticides

The quantities of pesticides used in Egypt based on Environmental Affairs agency, Egypt; January 2009, is about 600 ton/annually. Therefore, the spatial distribution of ten organochlorine and twelve organophosphorus pesticide residues in the main water source for Egyptian (River Nile) was investigated.

Occurrence of organochlorine pesticide residues

Water samples taken from three studied regions (Greater Cairo, Nile Delta, Nile estuaries at Damietta and Rosetta) at River Nile were analyzed. The recoveries of organochlorine pesticides ranged between 82 and 98.6 %. The mean concentration values are presented in Table 2. Organochlorine pesticide residues were mainly detected in the downstream of the river as follows; endrin, dieldrin, p, p’-DDD, and p, p’-DDT at a rate of 0.403, 1.081, 1.209, and 2.268 μg L−1, respectively. The levels of DDTs in this study were higher than those in the Pearl River, the Haihe River, Qiantang River and the Huaihe River [1417]. However, the concentration is lower than the concentration obtained from water sample collected in Begumganj, Bangladesh [18]. The high concentration level of total organochlorine pesticides at the Nile estuaries (Fig. 2b) could be attributed to the Delta agricultural lands wash off. Further investigations are clearly needed to reveal the sources and patterns of organochlorine pesticides contamination in river water.
Table 2

Mean concentration of organochlorine pesticides (μg/L−1) detected in water samples from the River Nile, Egypt

Site No.

Site Name

Region

α-HCH

γ-HCH

Aldrin

Heptachlor

Endrin (2 μg/L−1)a

Heptachlor epoxide

P, P’-DDE (2 μg/L−1)a

Dieldrin (0.03 μg/L−1)a

P, P’-DDD (2 μg/L−1)a

P, P’-DDT (2 μg/L−1)a

Total organochlorine pesticides

1

Alwasta-Beni Sweif

Greater Cairo

ND

ND

ND

ND

ND

ND

0.21

ND

ND

ND

0.21

2

Helwan

3

Cairo

4

Alaeat-Giza

5

Giza town

6

Alknater-Giza

7

Qalubiya

8

Monofea

Nile Delta

ND

ND

ND

ND

ND

ND

0.982

ND

ND

0.952

1.934

9

Belbas

10

Benha

11

Alazezea-Menya Elkamh

12

Menya Elkamh town

13

Zagazig

14

Mansoura

15

Fraskour-Damietta

Nile Estuaries

ND

ND

ND

ND

0.403

ND

ND

1.081

1.209

2.268

4.961

16

Damietta town

17

Ras El-bar

18

Gamasa

19

Rosetta town

20

Edfina-Rosetta

 

7.105a

Bold numbers: Values above the standard guidelines of World Health Organization

aOrganochlorine pesticide concentration (μg/L−1) along the River Nile sampling sites

ND not detectable, Number of samples = 60 (3/each sampling site)

Fig. 2

a Mean organochlorine pesticide concentrations; b Spatial distribution of total organochlorine pesticides in water samples collected from three sampling regions along the River Nile, Egypt

It is surprising to note that at Greater Cairo and Nile Delta region, various organochlorine pesticides were not detected although major industrial and agricultural activities are concentrated there. This could be due to the pesticides evaporation in tropical countries (Egypt), pesticide residues dilution or adsorption. p, p’-DDE was detected only at Greater Cairo in a low concentration, (0.21 μg L−1). However at Nile Delta region, p, p’-DDE and p, p’-DDT was estimated in a concentration of 0.982 and 0.952 μg L−1, respectively Table 2.

Along the investigated River Nile region sites, the most frequently detected organochlorine pesticide was endrin. Followed by, dieldrin, p, p’-DDE, p, p’-DDD, and p, p’-DDT. However, α-HCH, γ-HCH, aldrin, heptachlor, and heptachlor epoxide were not detected in the water samples (Fig. 2a). In spite of, p, p’-DDT and its metabolites (p, p’-DDE and p, p’-DDD), endrin and dieldrin have been officially prohibited since 1980 and in 1996 a Ministerial Decree prohibited the import and use of 80 pesticides including dieldrin, endrin, and DDT [19]. Nonetheless, our study indicates that above mentioned organochlorine pesticides are still sold in Egyptian markets.

Occurrence of organophosphorus pesticide residues

Amongst 12 organophosphorus pesticides analyzed, eight were detected. The recoveries of organophosphorus pesticides were in-between 82.5 and 100 %. The most frequently detected was triazophos, followed by quinalphos, then, fenitrothion, ethoprophos, chlorpyrifos, ethion, fenamiphos, and pirimiphos-methyl. However, prothiofos, dimethoate, diazinon, and phorate were not detected (Fig. 3a). For the Nile estuaries, the highest concentration of organophosphorus pesticide detected in water was 1.488 μg L−1 for triazophos. In our monitoring study levels of triazophos are generally higher than those reported in rivers and lakes of Greece [20], River Ravi of Pakistan [21], potable and irrigated water of Brazil [22]. Our results are in concert with a study conducted in Jiulong River in South China [23] as triazophos was the main organophosphorus pesticides detected in the estuary river water. In general, studying of organophosphorus River Nile water pollution is still in its initial stage, and further research is increasingly needed to establish a frame network data about its contamination degree.
Fig. 3

a Mean organophosphorus pesticide concentrations; b Spatial distribution of organophosphorus pesticides in water samples collected from three sampling regions along the River Nile, Egypt

In Greater Cairo and Nile Delta sampling regions the higher concentrations were 1.91 and 0.711 μg L−1 for, quinalphos, and fenitrothion, respectively Table 3. Accordingly, our results revealed that organophosphorus pesticide concentrations in the River Nile water, Egypt exceeded the EEC Council Directive 98/83/EC for water quality standard [24]. This could be attributed to the substitution of persistent organochlorine pesticides with organophosphate pesticides in the treatment of scattered cotton fields in Egypt as organophosphates and carbamates are the dominate insecticide used there [25, 26], resulting in serious hazards to the freshwater aquatic environments and adverse harmful effects to wildlife and humans.
Table 3

Mean concentration of organophosphorus pesticides (μg/L−1) detected in water samples from the River Nile, Egypt

Site No.

Site Name

Region

Ethoprophos

Phorate

Diazinon

Dimethoate

Pirimiphos-methyl

Chlorpyrifos

Fenitrothion

Quinalphos

Prothiofos

Ethion

Triazophos

Fenamiphos

Total organophosphorus pesticides

1

Alwasta-Beni Sweif

Greater Cairo

ND

ND

ND

ND

ND

ND

ND

1.91

ND

ND

1.011

ND

2.921

2

Helwan

3

Cairo

4

Alaeat-Giza

5

Giza town

6

Alknater-Giza

7

Qalubiya

8

Monofea

Nile Delta

0.14

ND

ND

ND

ND

ND

0.711

ND

ND

ND

0.102

ND

0.953

9

Belbas

10

Benha

11

Alazezea-Menya Elkamh

12

Menya Elkamh town

13

Zagazig

14

Mansoura

15

Fraskour-Damietta

Nile Estuaries

0.936

ND

ND

ND

0.04

0.578

0.511

ND

ND

0.263

1.488

0.111

3.954

16

Damietta town

17

Ras El-bar

18

Gamasa

19

Rosetta town

20

Edfina-Rosetta

 

7.828a

aOrganophosphorus pesticide concentration (μg/L−1) along the River Nile sampling sites

ND not detectable; Number of samples = 60 (3/each sampling site)

Spatial distribution of pesticides in the River Nile water samples

Organochlorine pesticides

Organochlorine pesticides water pollution showed a gradual increase in total organochlorine concentrations from Nile upstream at Greater Cairo in which total organochlorine pesticides were 0.21 μg L−1 to the Nile estuaries in which total organochlorine pesticides were 4.961 μg L−1. (Fig. 2b). In this context, we can expect the reverse relationship between the spatial organochlorine pesticides distribution and sampling regions temperature as organochlorine pesticides volatilize at warm temperatures (Nile upstream) and condense at cooler temperatures, reaching their highest concentrations in the cooler regions (Nile estuaries) [27].

Organophosphorus pesticides

Residues of total organophosphorus pesticides along the River Nile water sampling regions, showing the following spatial distribution pattern: River Nile estuaries > Greater Cairo > Nile Delta (Fig. 3b). Each sampling region was highly contaminated by special organophosphorus compound (Fig. 3a). The Fluxes in organophosphorus levels along the River Nile indicate contaminants local inputs. No cumulative effect toward the river downstream as Greater Cairo water samples were more contaminated by organophosphorus pesticides than Nile Delta samples in spite of its geographical location toward the river upstream Fig. 1.

Human hazardous risks

Human exposure to pesticide residues could be through water, food and air. Residue levels vary according to the type of exposure and the individual’s daily intake [28]. Therefore, the assessing of human hazardous risks due to the intake of pesticides polluted water is important.

Organochlorine pesticides

The hazardous risk of organochlorine pesticides was evaluated according to water quality guidelines set by the World Health Organization (WHO), which specifies limits for endrin, p, p’-DDE, dieldrin, p, p’-DDD, and p, p’-DDT as 2, 2, 0.03, 2, and 2 μg L−1, respectively [29]. Our results showed that dieldrin and p, p’-DDT residues in some sampling sites were above the standard guidelines of WHO Table 2. Thus, water from the River Nile generally possessed an environmental and human health hazard as dieldrin is highly toxic to the central nervous system [30] and eating DDT contaminated fish over a short time would most likely affect the nervous system [31].

Organophosphorus pesticides

Of the organophosphorus pesticides detected in water, Ethoprophos, Triazophos, and Fenamiphos are considered highly hazardous to fish and other aquatic organisms, while others are considered moderately to slightly toxic. Water quality standards and toxicological data for human and aquatic organisms in relation to the detected organophosphorus pesticides are listed in Table 4. Toxicity characterization based on the Pesticide Action Network databases, WHO, Canadian Water Quality Guidelines, and U.S. National Drinking Water Standards and Health Criteria, revealed that all the detected organophosphorus pesticides are related to at least one health effect [32]. Thus, new tools and policies with greater reliability than those already existing by the Egyptian Environmental Affairs Agency (EEAA) of the Ministry of State for Environmental Affairs are needed to prevent or reduce the use of these harmful chemicals in industrial and agricultural sectors.
Table 4

Hazardous risks of detected organophosphorus pesticides in the River Nile, Egypt

Detected Organophosphorus compound

Total Concentration along the River Nile μg/L−1

PAN Bad Actorsb

WHO Acute Hazard

Carcinogen

WHO Water Quality Criteria μg/L−1

Canadian Water Quality Guidelines for the Protection of Aquatic Life μg/L−1

Ethoprophos

1.076

Yes

Ia, Extremely hazardous

Yes

No water quality standard.

No water quality guidelines but induce mortality.

Pirimiphos-methyl

0.04

Yes

III, Slightly hazardous

Unclassifiable

Not recommended for direct application to drinking water.

No water quality guidelines but (Moderate to high toxicity)

Chlorpyrifos

0.578

Yes

II, Moderately hazardous

Not likely

30.0

0.0035

Fenitrothion

1.222

Yes

II, Moderately hazardous

Not likely

Occurs at concentrations below toxic effects.

Moderately toxic

Quinalphos

1.91

Yes

II, Moderately hazardous

Not likely

No water quality standard.

No water quality guidelines but induce mortality.

Ethion

0.263

Yes

II, Moderately hazardous

Not likely

No water quality standard.

No water quality guidelines (Moderate to high toxicity)

Triazophos

2.601

Yes

Ib, Highly hazardous

Not likely

Unlikely to occur.

Unlikely to occur, but induce mortality.

Fenamiphos

0.111

Yes

Ib, Highly hazardous

Not likely

3.50a

Unlikely to occur, but induce mortality.

Data of Hazardous risk were presented according to (Kegley et al., 2014) [32]

aU.S. Drinking Water Equivalent Level cited by U.S. National Drinking Water Standards and Health Criteria

bPan Bad Actors: are chemicals that are highly acutely toxic, cholinesterase inhibitor

Conclusions

Organochlorine and organophosphorus pesticides River Nile water pollution was investigated. Organochlorine pesticides detected were dieldrin; endrin; p, p’-DDE; p, p’-DDD; and p, p’-DDT. While, organophosphorus pesticides detected were triazophos, ethoprophos, quinalphos, chlorpyrifos, fenitrothion, ethion, fenamiphos, and pirimiphos-methyl. Spatial distribution of detected pesticides showed the reverse relationship between sampling regions temperature and organochlorine pesticides distribution. Meanwhile, organophosphorus pesticides were distributed according to the local inputs of pollutant compounds. Toxicological and water quality standards data revealed the hazardous risk of detected chemicals to human and aquatic life. We expect our results will provide viewpoints by which stricter legislation and regulatory controls can be admitted to avoid River Nile pesticide water pollution.

Abbreviations

μg L−1

Microgram/litter

APHA: 

American public health association

DDD: 

Dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane

DDE: 

Dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene

DDT: 

Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane

ECD: 

Electron capture detector

EEAA: 

Egyptian environmental affairs agency

EECD: 

European economic community directive

GC: 

Gas chromatography

LOD: 

Limit of detection

LOQ: 

Limit of quantification

PCBs: 

Polychlorinated biphenyls

POPs: 

Persistent organic pollutants

UNEP: 

United Nations environmental program

WHO: 

World Health Organization

α-HCH: 

alpha-Hexachlorocyclohexane

γ-HCH: 

gamma-Hexachlorocyclohexane

Declarations

Acknowledgments

This study was supported by the Zagazig University Research Projects, Egypt. The authors would like to thank Dr. Hend Mahmoud “Residue Analysis Department, Central Agriculture Pesticides Lab, Dokki, Egypt” for her technical assistance.

Funding

This study was funded under The Project of Environmental Monitoring Programmes, Zagazig University Research Projects, Egypt.

Availability of data and materials

All data generated or analyzed during this study are included in this published article and its supplementary information files.

Authors’ contributions

HD, AMM, AMMA have participated in the study conception and design, acquisition of data, and analysis& interpretation of data. MAA and EN participated in the intellectual helping in different stages of the study. HD and MHE participated in drafting of manuscript and preparation of critical version. All Authors have read the manuscript and have agreed to submit it in its current form for consideration for publication. All read and approved the final manuscript.

Competing interests

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

Consent for publication

Not applicable.

Ethics approval and consent to participate

Not applicable.

Open AccessThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver (http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.

Authors’ Affiliations

(1)
Department of Veterinary Public Health, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Zagazig University

References

  1. Williamson S, Ball A, Pretty J. Trends in pesticide use and drivers for safer pest management in four African countries. Crop Prot. 2008;27:1327–34.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  2. Mansour SA. Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in Africa: Egyptian scenario. Hum Exp Toxicol. 2009;28:531–66.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  3. Peter O, Lin KC, Karen P, Joe A. Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) and Human Health. Washington: World Federation of Public Health Association Publications; 2002. p. 1–35.Google Scholar
  4. Chambers HW, Boone JS, Carr RL, Chanbers JE. Chemistry of organophosphorus insecticides. In: Robert IK, editor. Handbook of Pesticide Toxicology. secondth ed. California: Academic; 2001. p. 913–7.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  5. Yamaguchi N, Gazzard D, Scholey G, Macdonald DW. Concentration and hazard assessment of PCBs, organochlorine pesticides and mercury in fish species from the upper Thames River pollution and its potential effects on top predators. Chemosphere. 2003;50:265–73.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  6. Wahaab RA, Badawy MI. Water quality assessment of the River Nile system: an overview. Biomed Environ Sci. 2004;17:87–100.Google Scholar
  7. El-Dib MA, Badawy MI. Organo-chlorine insecticides and PCBs in River Nile water, Egypt. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol. 1985;34:126–33.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  8. Abou-Arab AAK, Gomaa MNE, Badawy A, Naguib K. Distribution of organochlorine pesticides in the Egyptian aquatic ecosystem. Food Chem. 1995;54:141–6.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  9. APHA. Standard methods for the examination of water and waste water) (10th ed., pp. 391–448. Washington: American Public Health Association; 1985.Google Scholar
  10. Wilde FD. National Field Manual for the Collection of Water-Quality Data, Chapter A1. Preparations for Water Sampling. In: Handbooks for Water-Resources Investigations. USA: U.S. Geological Survey TWRI Book 9; 2005.Google Scholar
  11. APHA. Standard method for examination of water and wastewater. 14th ed. Washington: AWWA/WPCE; 1975.Google Scholar
  12. UNEP. Determination of DDTs and PCBs by capillary gas chromatography and electron capture detectors. Reference method for marine pollution studies no.4. 1988.Google Scholar
  13. Khaled A, El Nemr A, Said TO, El-Sikaily A, Abd- Allah AMA. Polychlorinated biphenyls and chlorinated pesticides in mussels from the Egyptian red sea coast. Chemosphere. 2004;54:1407–12.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  14. Guan YF, Wang JZ, Ni HG, Zeng EY. Organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in riverine runoff of the Pearl River Delta, China: assessment of mass loading, input source and environmental fate. Environ Pollut. 2009;157:618–24.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  15. Wang T, Zhang ZL, Huang J, Hu HY, Yu G, Li FS. Occurrence of dissolved polychlorinated biphenyls and organic chlorinated pesticides in the surface water of Haihe River and Bohai Bay, China. Environ Sci. 2007;28:730–5.Google Scholar
  16. Zhou R, Zhu L, Kong Q. Levels and distribution of organochlorine pesticides in shellfish from Qiantang River, China. J Hazard Mater. 2008;152:1192–200.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  17. Feng J, Zhai M, Liu Q, Sun J, Guo J. Residues of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in upper reach of the Huaihe River, East China. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf. 2011;74:2252–9.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  18. Matin M, Malek M, Amin M, Rahman S, Khatoon J, Rahman M, Aminuddin M, Mian A. Organochlorine insecticide residues in surface and underground water from different regions of Bangladesh. Agric Ecosyst Environ. 1998;69:11–5.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  19. Sallam KI, Morshedy AMA. Organochlorine pesticide residues in camel, cattle and sheep carcasses slaughtered in Sharkia Province, Egypt. Food Chem. 2008;108:154–64.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  20. Konstantinou IK, Hela DG, Albanis TA. The status of pesticide pollution in surface waters (rivers and lakes) of Greece. Part I. Review on occurrence and levels. Environ Pollut. 2006;141:555–70.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  21. Mahboob S, Niazi F, Sultana S, Ahmad Z. Assessment of pesticide residues in water, sediments and muscles of Cyprinus Carpio from Head Balloki in the River Ravi. Life Sci J. 2013;10:11s.Google Scholar
  22. Milhome MAL, Sousa PLR, Lima FAF, Nascimento RF. Influence the USE of pesticides in the Quality of surface and groundwater located in irrigated areas of Jaguaribe, Ceara, Brazil. Int J Environ Res. 2015;9:255–62.Google Scholar
  23. Zheng S, Chen B, Qiu X, Chen M, Ma Z, Yu X. Distribution and risk assessment of 82 pesticides in Jiulong River and estuary in South China. Chemosphere. 2016;144:1177–92.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  24. EECD. European Economic Community Directive, EEC Council Directive 98/83/EC. Off J Eur Communities. 1998;L330:42.Google Scholar
  25. WRI. World Resources Institute in Collaboration with the UN Environmental Programme, World resources 1994–1995. Washington: World Resources Institute; 1996.Google Scholar
  26. El-Sebae AH, Abou Zeid M, Saleh MA. Status and environmental impact of toxaphene in the third world-a case study of African agriculture. Chemosphere. 1993;27:2063–72.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  27. Anonymous. Persistent organic pollutants and the Stockholm Convention: a resource guide, A Report Prepared by Resource Futures International for the World Bank and CIDA. 2001. p. 22.Google Scholar
  28. Jonsson V, Liu GJK, Armbruster J, Kettelhut LL, Drucker B. Chlorohydrocarbon pesticide residues in human milk in Greater St. Louis, Missouri. Am J Clin Nutr. 1997;30:1106–9.Google Scholar
  29. Hamilton DJ, Ambrus A’, Dieterle RM, Felsot AS, Harris CA, Holland PT, Katayama A, Kurihara N, Linders J, Unsworth J, Wong SS. Regulatory limits for pesticide residues in water (IUPAC technical report). Pure Appl Chem. 2003;75:1123–55.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  30. WHO. Aldrin and dieldrin, Geneva, World Health Organization, International Programme on Chemical Safety (Environmental Health Criteria 91). 1989.Google Scholar
  31. ATSDR, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Toxicological Profile for DDT, DDE, DDD. Atlanta: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service; 2002.Google Scholar
  32. Kegley SE, Hill BR, Orme S, Choi AH. Pan Pesticide Database, Pesticide Action Network, North America (Oakland, CA). 2014. http://www.pesticideinfo.org/.

Copyright

© The Author(s). 2016

Advertisement