Phytodegradation potential of bisphenolA from aqueous solution by Azolla Filiculoides
© Zazouli et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2014
Received: 20 July 2013
Accepted: 15 March 2014
Published: 2 April 2014
Many organic hazardous pollutants such as bisphenolA (BPA) which are toxic and not easily biodegradable can concerns for environmental pollution worldwide. The objective of this study was to examine whether Azolla Filiculoides is able to remove BPA from aqueous solutions. In this study, the Azolla with different biomass (0.3, 0.6, 0.9, 1.2 g) has been cultured in solution that was contained 5, 10, 25 and 50 ppm BPA. Samples were collected every 2 days from all of containers. The analytical determination of BPA was performed by using of DR4000 uv-visible at λmax = 276 nm. The results indicated that Azolla has high ability to remove BPA from aqueous solutions. The BPA removal was 60-90%. The removal efficiency is increasing with decreasing of BPA concentration and increasing of biomass amount and vice versa. The removal efficiency was more than 90% when BPA concentration was 5 ppm and amount of biomass was 0.9gr. It is concluded that Azolla able remove BPA by Phytodegradation from the aqueous solutions. Since conventional methods of BPA removal need to high cost and energy, phytoremediation by Azolla as a natural treatment system can decrease those issues and it can be a useful and beneficial method to removal of BPA.
Various methods was studied for BPA removal from water and wastewater such as chemical, biological, photochemical, electrochemical, nanofiltration, adsorption, ion exchange, Fenton oxidation, photocatalytic oxidation, bioadsorption, ozonation, and etc. [12–15]. Dong and et al. showed that surfactant-modified zeolite had high retention capacity for BPA in aqueous solutions . Tsai and et al. reported that the adsorption behaviors of microporous zeolite on BPA adsorption greatly depend on the initial BPA concentration and adsorbent dosage . Recently, the phytoremediation is considered as an inexpensive and environmental friend method to remove of heavy metals and degradation of organic compounds [18–21]. Many studies indicated that this method is effective method to remove the organic compound and the removal percentage was more than 99% [22, 23]. The Phytoremediation of organic compounds can take place from the soil, air, groundwater or surface water. The action of plants can include the degradation, adsorption, accumulation and volatilization of compounds or the enhancement of soil rhizosphere activity . Azolla is one of the plants which used to phytoremediation. Azolla is a small free-floating water fern which is a genus of Azolla Filiculoides Lam. Because of its habitat and nitrogen-fixing capability, the symbiotic association has been used for several decades as green manure in rice fields . Since this plant is plentiful in northern of Iran and the BPA is common industrial pollutant in the world, therefore the aim of this study was to evaluate the ability of the Azolla for removal of BPA from aqueous solution.
Material and methods
Filiculoides was collected from rice fields in Sari County, north of Iran. The collected plants were washed with with distilled water to remove unwanted organisms, then transferred into aquariums containing N-free medium of the following composition: CaC12.2H2O, 1.00 mmol L−1,MgSO4.7H2O 1.65 mmol L−1,K2SO4 0.50 mmol L−1, NaH2PO4 .2H2O 0.65 mmol L−1, FeSO4.7H2O 27.0 mmol L−1, MnC12.4H2O 1.130 mmol L−1, CuSO4.5H2O 0.080 mmol L−1, ZnSO4.7H2O 0.190 mmol L−1, Na2 MoO4.2H2O 0.050 mmol L−1 and H3BO3 5.770 mmol L-1 .
Azolla was maintained and grown in laboratory by using of two aquariums with dimensions of 1 × 0.8 m. five heaters were used to increasing and controlling of temperature for Azolla culture medium. Natural light and ambient temperature (30°C) was used to Azolla growth .The best growth was observed in pH of 6.5-7.5. It must be mentioned that CuSO4 was used to prevent of algae growth in aquarium.
All used chemicals in this study were purchased from Merck Co. The 32 plastic containers with the capacity of 200 ml were used as pilot scale to perform the study. Desired concentration of BPA including 5, 10, 25, 50 ppm was prepared by stocks solution (1000 ppm). At first, the culture medium and BPA solution was poured in plastics container and then certain Azolla biomass was added to the containers. Finally, it was allowed to growth of Azolla in containers and to acclimatize with BPA. The certain amount of Azolla was used including 0.3, 0.6, 0.9 and 1.2 g. Also, 8 samples as control sample without plant were used to determine the evaporation of BPA. The BPA concentration was measured by spectrophotometer in certain condition after 4 days of contact time. BPA concentration was determined after of 2, 8, 12, 16, and 20 days following the exposure.
BPA measurement and analysis
At first 5 ml of sample was grabbed. It was filtrated after centrifuging for 10 min in 3600 rpm. The filtrated samples were analyzed by uv-visible (DR-4000) at λmax = 276 nm. The removal rate of BPA was determined with regarding to obtained adsorption rates and standard curve . All of the obtained data were analyzed statistically with two or three replicates for their significance. An analysis of variance (ANOVA) was Performed by the software of Spss16. Differences were considered significant when the value was <0.05.
Results and discussion
Effect of temperature on Azolla growth rate
Effect of temperature on BPA removal
Effect of BPA concentration
Effect of initial biomass concentration
The uptake pollutants mechanism by plants through the Phytodegradation (also known as phytotransformation) is the breakdown of contaminants taken up by plants through metabolic processes within the plant, or the breakdown of contaminants external to the plant through the effect of compounds (such as enzymes) produced by the plants. Also Mechanism Rhizodegradation is the breakdown of an organic contaminant in soil through microbial activity that is enhanced by the presence of the root zone . Despite the many benefits of phytoremediation, the problems such as measuring phytoremediation rates, predicting treatment times, and developing monitoring schemes are recognized as current limitations to using phytoremediation .
Finally, the results of this study indicated that Azolla have good ability to remove the organic compound from aqueous solution and can give the removal efficiency more than 95%. The Bio removal efficiency depended on the reaction time, initial BPA concentration; fern water weight, pH and temperature. The conventional methods such as AOP, adsorption and etc., are high cost and consume high energy and because all countries are faced with energy shortage problem today; thus natural systems, for instance use of Azolla, can be good alternative to conventional systems to remove of this compounds from wastewater.
The authors would like to express their thanks to the research deputy (Student Research Committee) of Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences for its financial support of this study (Project No: 91-181).
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