Modified Mesoporous Silica (SBA–15) with Trithiane as a new effective adsorbent for mercury ions removal from aqueous environment
© Esmaeili Bidhendi et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2014
Received: 8 February 2014
Accepted: 17 June 2014
Published: 25 June 2014
Removal of mercury from aqueous environment has been highly regarded in recent years and different methods have been tested for this purpose. One of the most effective ways for mercury ions (Hg+2) removal is the use of modified nano porous compounds. Hence, in this work a new physical modification of mesoporous silica (SBA-15) with 1, 3, 5 (Trithiane) as modifier ligand and its application for the removal of Hg+2 from aqueous environment has been investigated. SBA-15 and Trithiane were synthesized and the presence of ligand in the silica framework was demonstrated by FTIR spectrum. The amounts of Hg+2 in the samples were determined by cold vapor generation high resolution continuum source atomic absorption spectroscopy. Also, the effects of pH, stirring time and weight of modified SBA-15 as three major parameters for effective adsorption of Hg+2 were studied.
The important parameter for the modification of the adsorbent was Modification ratio between ligand and adsorbent in solution which was 1.5. The results showed that the best Hg+2 removal condition was achieved at pH = 5.0, stirring time 15 min and 15.0 mg of modified adsorbent. Moreover, the maximum percentage removal of Hg+2 and the capacity of adsorbent were 85% and 10.6 mg of Hg+2/g modified SBA-15, respectively.
To sum up, the present investigation introduced a new modified nano porous compound as an efficient adsorbent for removal of Hg+2 from aqueous environment.
Mercury as a kind of heavy metal is present in industrial wastewater such as chemical industry, mining, refining petrochemical and a wide variety of industrial activities[1, 2]. This toxic and hazardous chemical compound has harmful effects on the environment and human health. In fact, mercury due to its bioaccumulation property the same as other heavy metals, has damaging effects on vital organs such as heart, brain, liver and fatty texture and will result in different cancers. Therefore, this compound is considered as one of the most toxic metals found in the environment and a main source of pollution[4, 5]. Hence, nowadays mercury ions removal from aqueous environment (water & wastewater) as one of the major challenges for hygienic management of societies has been the subject of extensive technological research. Several methods including solvent extraction chemical precipitation, vacuum evaporation, membrane technologies, ion exchange, adsorption and membrane separation have been developed and used to remove Hg+2 from environment[1, 7–10], but some of these methods such as adsorption owing to different problems like low mechanical and thermal stability and a weak chemical union with the Hg+2, are often costly or inefficient for removing Hg+2 from dilute solutions[1, 10, 11]. Thus, the scientific community has felt obliged to look for a new method to remove Hg+2 from the environment. Hence, synthesis and modification of adsorbents for the removal Hg+2 and other heavy metals ions from water and wastewater is a continuing research objective for the control of environmental pollution[12–17]. In this regard, the development of modified mesoporous materials based on MCM-41 and SBA-15 because of their great advantages among large surface area, uniform pore size and controlled surface chemistry for adsorption applications including removal and determination of metal ions[19–24], radio nuclides, dyes, organics, and anionic complexes[28, 29], has generated considerable interest. According to the abovementioned, SBA-15 as one of the main types of mesoporous silica materials is a highly common material possessing a regular two dimensional hexagonal array of channels. This material is prepared with non-ionic amphiphilic triblock copolymer micelles as the template under acidic reaction conditions. The pore size of this material typically can be varied between 7–10 nm, by varying the synthesis temperature (between 30 and 90°C) and the template. Furthermore, a variety of functional groups such as organic ligands can be grafted or incorporated chemically or physically on the surface of mesoporous channels and prepare highly effective and selective adsorbents[32, 33]. Therefore, in this research, 1, 3, 5 Trithiane due to its ability to adsorb Hg+2 has been chosen as the ligand for the modification of SBA-15 resulting in a new adsorbent for removing Hg+2 from aqueous environment and the Batch method was applied in order to examine the capability of this new adsorbent.
Materials and methods
Reagents and chemicals
All chemicals and reagents used in this research were of analytical grade purchased from Merck Company (Darmstadt, Germany). Also, doubly distilled deionized water was used throughout for preparing all solutions. A stock solution (1000 mg L-1) of Hg+2 was prepared by dissolving the appropriate amounts of Hg (NO3)2 in doubly distilled deionized water and also a stock standard acetate buffer solution with pH 5.0 was prepared by mixing 14.8 mL 0.2 M acetic acid with 35.2 mL 0.2 M sodium acetate trihydrate and volume with doubly distilled deionized water to 100 mL.
An Analytik Jena cold vapor generation high resolution continuum source atomic absorption spectroscopy (model: contrAA 700) was used for the determination of Hg+2 in the samples. The optimized default conditions of this instrument conformed to Aspect CS 1.5.6 software released by the company. FTIR analyses of the modified and non-modified SBA-15 were performed in a Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (Bruker-Tensor 27). The samples pH values were measured by a Metrohm pH-meter (model: 713, Herisau, Switzerland) equipped with a glass-combined electrode.
Synthesis of SBA-15
SBA-15 preparation was based on the procedure in the literature. 2.0 g of triblock copolymer P123 (EO20PO70EO20) was dissolved in 60.0 g of 2 M Hydrochloric acid (HCl) aqueous solution stirred at 40°C. Then 4.3 g of Tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS) was added to the homogeneous solution and stirred at this temperature for 24 h. Finally, it was heated to 100°C and held at this temperature for 24 h under static conditions. The prepared sample was filtered, and then washed with water and air-dried at room temperature. The removal of the template was carried out at 550°C in air for 5 h.
Synthesis of 1, 3, 5 Trithiane as Modifier
Modification of SBA -15
Modification of the prepared SBA-15 was performed by dissolving 60 mg of Trithiane in adequate amount of Acetonitrile and adding 40 mg of SBA-15 and mixing for 15 min. Next, the solution was filtered and the solid phase as the functionalized product was exposed to atmosphere and used as a new sorbent for this research.
Metal adsorption experiments
The general procedure for removal of Hg+2 by the modified SBA-15 was as follows: A batch system was employed for the removal of Hg+2 and removing was performed in a beaker containing 10 mL (10 mg L-1) Hg+2 solutions. About 10 mg modified SBA-15 was added to the solution. Then the mixture was stirred for 10 min to remove Hg+2 from the solution. Finally, filtration was performed and Hg+2 concentrations were determined by cold vapor generation high resolution continuum source atomic absorption spectroscopy (model: contrAA 700).
Results and discussion
SBA-15 modification seems essential through suitable ligand because this mesoporous adsorbent has a major problem removing Hg+2 from aqueous environment selectively and efficiently. Previous studies indicated that 1, 3, 5 Trithiane as organic ligand has an efficient interaction with Hg+2. Hence, it was used in the modification of SBA-15 for the removal of Hg+2. The preliminary experiments showed that the removal of Hg+2 ions by non-modified and modified SBA-15 was obviously different and the former cannot remove Hg+2 quantitatively.
Effect of Modified Ratio (Ligand / SBA)
Modification ratio between ligand and adsorbent shown in this research as (Ligand / SBA-15) is one of the parameters affecting the prepared efficient modified adsorbent. In this study, mesoporous silica has been modified by Trithiane ligand by 3 modification ratios as 0.5, 1 and 1.5 (w/w). Then all the modified adsorbents were tested for removing Hg+2 from the samples. The results showed that the adsorbent modified by 1.5 (Ligand/SBA-15 w/w) has the maximum percentage of Hg+2 removal from the samples compared to the other two modification ratios. According to the obtained results, higher modification ratios were not studied in this research because the modified adsorbent has to be economical. On the other hand, the Hg+2 removal process revealed that by raising the modification ratio from 0.5 to 1 and 1 to 1.5, the percentage of removal increased slightly. Therefore, in the subsequent experiments we used 1.5 (Ligand / SBA-15 w/w) modification ratio.
Effect of pH
Effect of Weight of Adsorbent
Effect of the stirring time on removal yield
Capacity of the modified SBA-15
Where C 0 (mg L-1) is the initial concentration of Hg+2 and C t (mg L-1) is Hg+2 concentration at time t. V is the volume of Hg+2 solutions and m is the mass of the modified mesoporous. The capacity of the modified adsorbent was found to be 10.6 mg of Hg+2/g modified SBA-15.
In the present research, new and effective modified mesoporous silica was prepared and tested in batch mode for Hg+2 removal from the aqueous samples. The results demonstrated a successful application of modified SBA-15 for the effective removal of Hg+2 as a rapid and easy method. Maximum percentage of removal happened at pH equal to 5.0, 15-min stirring time and using 15 mg of modified adsorbent. As adsorbents are used in wastewater treatment plants, the preparation of an applicable form of adsorbent such as an adsorption column and the determination of its effective parameters proves necessary so the authors will focus on this target in the future.
The authors acknowledge the financial and scientific support provided by the Center of excellence in electrochemistry and Graduate faculty of Environment at the University of Tehran.
- Rostamian R, Najafi M, Rafati AA: Synthesis and characterization of thiol-functionalized silica nano hollow sphere as a novel adsorbent for removal of poisonous heavy metal ions from water: Kinetics, isotherms and error analysis. Chem Eng J 2011, 171: 1004–1011. 10.1016/j.cej.2011.04.051View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Aguado J, Arsuaga JM, Arencibia A, Lindo M, Gascon V: Aqueous heavy metals removal by adsorption on amine-functionalized mesoporous silica. J Hazard Mater 2009, 163: 213–221. 10.1016/j.jhazmat.2008.06.080View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Boening DW: Ecological effects, transport, and fate of mercury: a general review. Chemosphere 2000, 40(12):1335–1351. 10.1016/S0045-6535(99)00283-0View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Evangelista SM, Deoliveira E, Castro GR, Zara LF, Prado AGS: Hexagonal mesoporous silica modified with 2-mercaptothiazoline for removing mercury from water solution. Surf Sci 2007, 601: 2194–2202. 10.1016/j.susc.2007.03.020View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Esmaeili Bidhendi M, Karbassi AR, Baghvand A, Saeedi M, Pejman AH: Potential of natural bed soil in adsorption of heavy metals in industrial waste landfill. Int J Environ Sci Tech 2010, 7(3):545–552. 10.1007/BF03326163View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Lee B, Kim Y, Lee H, Yi J: Synthesis of functionalized porous via templating method as heavy metal ion adsorbents: the introduction of surface hydrophilicity onto the surface of adsorbents. Micropor Mesopor Mater 2001, 50: 77–90. 10.1016/S1387-1811(01)00437-1View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Nabi SA, Shahadat M, Bushra R, Shalla AH, Ahmed F: Development of composite ion-exchange adsorbent for pollutants removal from environmental wastes. Chem Eng J 2010, 165: 405–412. 10.1016/j.cej.2010.08.068View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Najafi M, Rostamian R, Rafati AA: Chemically modified silica gel with thiol group as an adsorbent for retention of some toxic soft metal ions from water and industrial effluent. Chem Eng J 2011, 168: 426–432. 10.1016/j.cej.2010.12.064View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Huuha TS, Kurniawan TA, Sillanpaa MET: Removal of silicon from pulping whitewater using integrated treatment of chemical precipitation and evaporation. Chem Eng J 2010, 158: 584–592. 10.1016/j.cej.2010.01.058View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Quintanilla DP, Hierro ID, Fajardo M, Sierra I: 2-Mercaptothiazoline modified mesoporous silica for mercury removal from aqueous media. J Hazard Mater 2006, B134: 245–256.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Babel S, Kurniawan TA: Low-cost adsorbents for heavy metals uptake from contaminated water: a review. J Hazard Mater 2003, 97: 219–243. 10.1016/S0304-3894(02)00263-7View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Mahmoud ME, Osman MM, Hafez OF, Hegazi AH, Elmelegy E: Removal and preconcentration of lead (II) and other heavy metals from water by alumina adsorbents developed by surface-adsorbed-dithizone. Desalination 2010, 251: 123–130. 10.1016/j.desal.2009.08.008View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Mahmoud ME, Hafez OF, Alrefaay A, Osman MM: Performance evaluation of hybrid inorganic/organic adsorbents in removal and preconcentration of heavy metals from drinking and industrial waste water. Desalination 2010, 253: 9–15. 10.1016/j.desal.2009.11.044View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Mahmoud ME, Kenawy IMM, Hafez MAH, Lashein RR: Removal, preconcentration and determination of trace heavy metal ions in water samples by AAS via chemically modified silica gel N-(1-carboxy-6-hydroxy) benzylidenepropylamine ion exchanger. Desalination 2010, 250: 62–70. 10.1016/j.desal.2009.09.009View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Burham N: Separation and pre concentration system for lead and cadmium determination in natural samples using 2-aminoacetylthiophenol modified polyurethane foam. Desalination 2009, 249: 1199–1205. 10.1016/j.desal.2009.04.009View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Ciftci H, Yalcin H, Eren E, Olcucu A, Sekerci M: Enrichment and determination of Ni 2+ ions in water samples with a diamino-4-(4-nitro-phenylazo)-1H-pyrazole (PDANP) by using FAAS. Desalination 2010, 256: 48–53. 10.1016/j.desal.2010.02.018View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Chakravarty P, Sen Sarma N, Sarma HP: Removal of lead (II) from aqueous solution using heartwood of Areca catechu powder. Desalination 2010, 256: 16–21. 10.1016/j.desal.2010.02.029View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Lei B, Li B, Zhang HR, Lu SZ, Zheng ZH, Li WL, Wang Y: Mesostructured Silica Chemically Doped with RuII as a Superior Optical Oxygen Sensor. Adv Funct Mater 2006, 16(14):1883–1891. 10.1002/adfm.200500737View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Perez-Quintanilla D, Sanchez A, Del Hierro I, Fajardo M, Sierra I: Preparation of 2-mercaptobenzenothiazole-derivatived mesoporous silica and of Hg (II) from aqueous solution. J Environ Monit 2006, 8: 214–222. 10.1039/b507983gView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Perez-Quintanilla D, Sanchez A, Del Hierro I, Fajardo M, Sierra I: Preconcentration of Zn (II) in water samples using a new hybrid SBA-15-based material. J Hazard Mater 2009, 166: 1449–1458. 10.1016/j.jhazmat.2008.12.065View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Perez-Quintanilla D, Sanchez A, Del Hierro I, Fajardo M, Sierra I: Solid phase extraction of Pb(II) in water samples using a new hybrid inorganic–organic mesoporous silica prior to its determination by FAAS. Microchim Acta 2009, 165: 291–298. 10.1007/s00604-008-0132-0View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Kang T, Park Y, Choi K, Sang Leec J, Yi J: Ordered mesoporous silica (SBA-15) derivatized with imidazole-containing functionalities as a selective adsorbent of precious metal ions. J Mater Chem 2004, 14: 1043–1049. 10.1039/b315829bView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Ganjali MR, Hajiaghababaei L, Badiei AR, Saberyan K, Salavati-Niasari M, Ziarani GM, Behbahani SMR: A novel method for fast enrichment and monitoring of hexavalent and trivalent chromium at the PPT level with modified silica MCM-41 and its determination by inductively coupled plasm optical emission spectrometry. Quim Nova 2006, 29: 440–443. 10.1590/S0100-40422006000300007View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Ganjali MR, Hajiaghababaei L, Badiei AR, Ziarani GM, Tarlani A: Novel method for the fast preconcentration and monitoring of a ppt level of lead and copper with a modified hexagonal mesoporous silica compound and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry. Anal Sci 2004, 20: 725–729. 10.2116/analsci.20.725View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Ju YH, Webb OF, Dai S, Lin JS, Barnes CE: Synthesis and characterization of ordered mesoporous anion-exchange inorganic hybrid resins for radionuclide separation. Ind Eng Chem Res 2000, 39: 550–553. 10.1021/ie990597vView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Ho KY, Mckay G, Yeung KL: Selective adsorbents from ordered mesoporous silica. Langmuir 2003, 19: 3019–3024. 10.1021/la0267084View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Lim MH, Stein A: Comparative studies of grafting and direct syntheses of inorganic–organic hybrid mesoporous materials. Chem Mater 1999, 11: 3285–3295. 10.1021/cm990369rView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Lee B, Bao LL, Im HJ, Dai S, Hagaman EW, Lin JS: Synthesis and characterization of organic–inorganic hybrid mesoporous anion-exchange resin for perrhenate (ReO4 -) anion adsorption. Langmuir 2003, 19: 4246–4252. 10.1021/la026960bView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Fryxell GE, Liu J, Hauser TA, Nie Z, Ferris KF, Mattigod S, Gong M, Hallen RT: Design and synthesis of selective mesoporous anion traps. Chem Mater 1999, 11: 2148–2154. 10.1021/cm990104cView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Hajiaghababaei L, Badiei A, Ganjali MR, Heydari S, Khaniani Y, Mohammadi Ziarani G: Highly efficient removal and preconcentration of lead and cadmium cations from water and wastewater samples using ethylenediamine functionalized SBA-15. Desalination 2011, 266: 182–187. 10.1016/j.desal.2010.08.024View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Zhao D, Huo Q, Feng J, Chmelka BF, Stucky GD: Nonionic triblock and star diblock copolymer and ologomeric surfactant syntheses of highly ordered, hydrothermally stable, mesoporous silica structures. J Am Chem Soc 1998, 120: 6024–6037. 10.1021/ja974025iView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Badiei A, Norouzi P, Tousi F: Study of electrochemical behavior and adsorption mechanism of [Co(en) 2 C l2 ] + on mesoporous modified carbon paste electrode. Eur J Sci Res 2005, 12: 39–45.Google Scholar
- Badiei A, Bonneviot L, Crowther N, Mohammadi Ziarani G: Surface tailoring control in micelle templated silica. J Organomet Chem 2006, 691: 5923–5931.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Murty DSR, Chakrapani G: Preconcentration of rare earth elements on activated carbon and its application to groundwater and sea-water analysis. J Anal At Spectrom 1996, 11: 815–820. 10.1039/ja9961100815View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Ercan Ö, Aydınb A: Removal of Mercury, Antimony, Cadmium and Lead from Aqueous Solution using 1,3,5-Trithiane as an Adsorbent. J Braz Chem Soc 2013, 24(5):865–872.Google Scholar
- Organic Syntheses Coll. Vol. 2, p.610 (1943); Vol. 16, p.81 (1936) [http://www.orgsyn.org/Content/pdfs/procedures/CV2P0610.pdf]
- Dev K, Rao GN: Preparation and analytical properties of a chelating resin containing bicine groups. Talanta 1995, 42: 591–596. 10.1016/0039-9140(95)01452-HView ArticleGoogle Scholar
This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly credited. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver (http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.