- Research article
- Open Access
Urban runoff treatment using nano-sized iron oxide coated sand with and without magnetic field applying
© Khiadani (Hajian) et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2013
- Received: 21 December 2012
- Accepted: 2 November 2013
- Published: 20 December 2013
Increase of impervious surfaces in urban area followed with increases in runoff volume and peak flow, leads to increase in urban storm water pollution. The polluted runoff has many adverse impacts on human life and environment. For that reason, the aim of this study was to investigate the efficiency of nano iron oxide coated sand with and without magnetic field in treatment of urban runoff. In present work, synthetic urban runoff was treated in continuous separate columns system which was filled with nano iron oxide coated sand with and without magnetic field. Several experimental parameters such as heavy metals, turbidity, pH, nitrate and phosphate were controlled for investigate of system efficiency. The prepared column materials were characterized with Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Energy Dispersive X-ray analysis (EDXA) instruments. SEM and EDXA analyses proved that the sand has been coated with nano iron oxide (Fe3O4) successfully. The results of SEM and EDXA instruments well demonstrate the formation of nano iron oxide (Fe3O4) on sand particle. Removal efficiency without magnetic field for turbidity; Pb, Zn, Cd and PO4 were observed to be 90.8%, 73.3%, 75.8%, 85.6% and 67.5%, respectively. When magnetic field was applied, the removal efficiency for turbidity, Pb, Zn, Cd and PO4 was increased to 95.7%, 89.5%, 79.9%, 91.5% and 75.6% respectively. In addition, it was observed that coated sand and magnetic field was not able to remove NO3 ions. Statistical analyses of data indicated that there was a significant difference between removals of pollutants in two tested columns. Results of this study well demonstrate the efficiency of nanosized iron oxide-coated sand in treatment of urban runoff quality; upon 75% of pollutants could be removed. In addition, in the case of magnetic field system efficiency can be improved significantly.
- Urban runoff
- Iron oxide nano particles
- Sand filter
- Magnetic field
Storm water runoff from paved surfaces can carry large loads of various pollutants including heavy metals, hydrocarbons, nutrients and pathogens [1–3]. These pollutants may originate from motorized vehicle emissions, automobile tires, brake pads, corrosion of pavement, chemical deposition on or near the pavement surface and anthropogenic activities [1, 4]. On the other hand, since impervious surfaces such as roofs and roads dominate the land cover of urbanized areas, cities suffer from increased and more intense runoff, reduced groundwater recharge and runoff water quality , increased peak flows  and hydrological, physico-chemical and consequent biological disturbance of the receiving waters [7, 8]. Special attention should be paid to heavy metals in storm water runoff due to their toxicity . Some of the most frequently reported metals in storm water are cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) that are considered to be of the great concern. Concentrations of these ions in storm water commonly exceed surface water quality guidelines by 10 times or more . Release of heavy metals into natural receiving waters can cause accumulation of non-biodegradable metals in the environment, causing both short-term and long-term adverse effects on human life . Phosphorus (P) is the most commonly present substance in freshwater bodies subject to eutrophication . Excess Nitration (N) in storm water leads to saturation of nitrogen, water bloom and associated water-quality problems .
Several methods have been developed and used for treatment of storm water runoff from urban area. Natural and constructed wetlands, for example, have been investigated as practical alternatives for treating runoffs in several studies. These systems allow reducing primarily particulate pollutants. The constructed wetlands and retention ponds require large area and these systems were mostly applied for pollution source areas at catchment scale. Filtration of storm water through a filter system filled with adsorbents (e.g. zeolite, peat, granular activated carbon or sand) is another possible treatment method that is relatively recent innovation for treatment of runoff .
Iron (hydr) oxide-coated sand (IOCS) has shown to have high efficiency in removing microorganisms, turbidity and heavy metals . Many studies have used IOCS to remove lead , arsenic , nickel and copper , organic matter , humic [19, 20], and phosphate  from aqueous solution and/or wastewater. On the other hand, magnetic treatment of wastewater can be applied to eliminate heavy metals, color, phosphates and oil at low concentration. Some studies have reported that magnetic field affects properties of water such as light absorbance, pH, zeta potential and surface tension. However, these idea have not always been confirmed . In recent years, attention has been paid to the possibility of enhancing treatment of wastewater by static magnetic field. However information is not available about the effect of magnetic field on the biological degradation of wastewater organic matter . Magnetic field was used to improve anaerobic ammonium oxidation in which nitrogen removal increased by 30% with 25% less time . In addition, magnetic field has been used for formaldehyde biological degradation with 30% increases in removal efficiency if compared with other technologies .
For that reason, the aim of this study was to investigate the efficiency of sand filter coated with nano iron oxide for treatment of urban runoff. In addition to this, magnetic field was applied to the coated sand filter to find out if the magnetic field can further improve the treatment of urban runoff.
Chemicals and reagents
Characteristics of synthesized runoff 
Sand filter media
Filter media was packed with local quarry sands ranging between 0.85 and 2.36 mm. Before used in column and coating, The sand was soaked in 8% nitric acid solution overnight, rinsed with deionised water to pH = 7.0 and dried at 105°C. The sands were coated with iron oxide according the method suggested by Mostafa et al. . The solution of Fe(III) was prepared by dissolving reagent grade FeCl3·6H2O in deionized water. The solution was stirred with a magnetic stirrer at 200 rpm and 0.5 M NaOH solution was added for adjusting pH at 9.5 ± 0.1 and mixed for 5 min. The mixed solution was introduced to 100 g sand in a conical flask and was placed in a temperature-controlled shaker at 60 ± 1°C, then stirred at 200 rpm for 24 h. After that, the coated sand was dried in an oven at 105 ± 1°C for 24 h. Finally, the prepared sands particle was washed 5–7 times with deionized water for remove uncoated iron particle, dried at 60 ± 1°C for 24 h and used for future experiment.
Concentration of lead (Pb), zinc (Zn) and cadmium (Cd) in effluent were determined using a Perkin Elmer 2380 atomic absorption spectrometer. Nitrate and phosphate was determined using UV–vis spectrophotometer (HACH DR5000). Turbidimeter (Euteoh Instruments TN 100) was used to measure turbidity. Schott pH meter model CG-824 was used for pH analysis. Size and characteristics of nano particles was determined using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and Energy Dispersive X-ray Analysis (EDXA).
Removal of turbidity
Removal of lead, zinc and cadmium
With applying the magnetic field to the coated sand, the removal efficiency of lead, zinc and cadmium was increased to 89.6%, 80%, and 91.5%, respectively; which are in agreement with previously published work . There are not much information about the mechanism of magnetic field on soluble ions, however, magnetic force leads to increase in electrostatic interaction between positively charged ions such as lead, zinc and cadmium with adsorbent surface; followed with increase in metals adsorption capacity. It may be due to releases of free electron from adsorbent surface to bounding with metals ions. Another reason may be due to decreases in zeta potential  leading to increase in metal bounding with present medium.
Achak et al. reported that solution conductivity of the effluent from sand filter was reduced. They declared that this reduction is due to the adsorption of the cations on the colloids negatively charged . On the other hand, it has been reported that magnetic field reduce zeta potential , which causes colloids instability and increases agglomeration and then speeding up settling. Moreover, adsorption to suspended solids occurs before settling and filtration or adsorption to substrate . Therefore, an increase in removal efficiency may be is due to the occurrence of two subsequent phenomenon’s: adsorption of the cations on the colloids pollutants in the first stage, and enhanced the colloids agglomeration and settling, because of zeta potential reduction, in the second stage.
Removal of phosphate
SEM photographs in this study showed that iron oxide are well deposited on the sand, resulting in increase of the surface sites and so chance of phosphate ions adsorption. Scholes et al. reported that adsorption is physico-chemical adherence that is controlled by factors such as the particulate surface area and surface composition . Moreover Achak et al. emphasized that ions are well retained by the cations of the sand such as iron and aluminum oxides . Therefore, in addition to increase of surface area, the presence of iron on the surface caused to promote of adsorption, due to adsorption of the ions onto iron deposits.
Since phosphate and arsenic are in the same group in the periodic table and their ionic charge and size are very similar , Boujelben et al. declared phosphate ions are as models for removal of similar pollutant (i.e. arsenates and antimonies) . Besides, it has been reported that one reason for higher efficiency of iron oxide coated sand for As (III) may be is due to formation of ferric hydroxide in the aqueous solution responsible for the co-precipitation of the ions on the surface of the adsorbent . Therefore, it well demonstrated that only adsorption is not contributed in the phosphate removal. According this, Mostafa et al. declared that if desorption rate was slower than adsorption rate, chemical mechanism is contribute in the ion removal, and since this relationship was established in their study, they conclude that chemical bonding was formed between arsenic ions and the coated surface . Therefore, in addition to adsorption, formation of chemical bonding between phosphate ions and the coated surface was contributed in the phosphate ion removal. The coated sand with nano iron oxide with magnetic field increased the removal efficiency of phosphate to 75%. As it was explained previously, magnetic field could reduce zeta potential and causes insatiability which leads to adsorption and agglomeration of phosphate. Moreover, magnetic force breaks hydrogen bonds between water molecules, so the ions become separated and combine with elements (such as Pb, P, Ni, etc.) and precipitate .
Removal of nitrate
Statistical analyses of data indicated that there was a significant difference between removals of pollutants in two columns. In case of turbidity, lead, zinc, cadmium and phosphate, prob > |t| is 0.005, 0.03, 0.03, 0.005, and 0.007 respectively (all less than 0.05).
In present study, natural sand and nano sized iron coated sand with and without applying magnetic field was used for treatment of synthetic urban runoff. Results indicate that nano sized iron oxide-coated sand has a significant efficiency to improve urban runoff quality. Nano iron coated sand was able to remove 75% of pollutant in average. In addition, in the case of magnetic field, removal efficiency was improved significantly; showing effectives of nano iron coated sand in the presence of magnetic field. Our results well demonstrate that present system is effective methods as compared with other existing methods for treatment of urban runoff containing, phosphate, turbidity, cadmium, lead and zinc. Although the real urban runoff must be applied to achieve real results and further studies are needed to implement of this system on a large scale.
The authors would like to thank the Esfahan University of Medical Sciences for supporting of this work. In addition, we thank Hamadan University of Medical Sciences for supporting partial laboratory analysis.
- Jang Y-C, Jain P, Tolaymat T, Dubey B, Singh S, Townsend T: Characterization of roadway stormwater system residuals for reuse and disposal options. Sci Total Environ 2010,408(4):1878–1887.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Karlsson K, Viklander M, Scholes L, Revitt M: Heavy metal concentrations and toxicity in water and sediment from stormwater ponds and sedimentation tanks. J hazard mater 2010,178(11):612–618.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Parker J, McIntyre D, Noble R: Characterizing fecal contamination in stormwater runoff in coastal North Carolina, USA. Water Res 2010, 44: 4186–4194. 10.1016/j.watres.2010.05.018View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Camponelli KM, Lev SM, Snodgrass JW, Landa ER, Casey RE: Chemical fractionation of Cu and Zn in stormwater, roadway dust and stormwater pond sediments. Environ Pollut 2010,158(4):2143–2149.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Schroll E, Lambrinos J, Righetti T, Sandrock D: The role of vegetation in regulating stormwater runoff from green roofs in a winter rainfall climate. Ecol Eng 2011,37(3):595–600.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Blecken G-T, Zinger Y, Deletić A, Fletcher TD, Hedström A, Viklander M: Laboratory study on stormwaterbiofiltration: nutrient and sediment removal in cold temperatures. J Hydrol 2010,394(14):507–514.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Hurley SE, Forman RT: Stormwater ponds and biofilters for large urban sites: modeled arrangements that achieve the phosphorus reduction target for Boston's Charles River. USA Ecol Eng 2011,37(13):850–863.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Tixier G, Lafont M, Grapentine L, Rochfort Q, Marsalek J: Ecological risk assessment of urban stormwater ponds: literature review and proposal of a new conceptual approach providing ecological quality goals and the associated bioassessment tools. Ecol Indic 2011,11(7):1497–1506.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Lindblom E, Ahlman S, Mikkelsen PS: Uncertainty-based calibration and prediction with a stormwater surface accumulation-washoff model based on coverage of sampled Zn, Cu, Pb and Cd field data. Water Res 2011,45(9):3823–3835.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Okochi NC, McMartin DW: Laboratory investigations of stormwater remediation via slag: effects of metals on phosphorus removal. J hazard mater 2011,187(16):250–257.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Wu P, Zhou Y-S: Simultaneous removal of coexistent heavy metals from simulated urban stormwater using four sorbents: a porous iron sorbent and its mixtures with zeolite and crystal gravel. J hazard mater 2009,168(6):674–680.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Collins KA, Lawrence TJ, Stander EK, Jontos RJ, Kaushal SS, Newcomer TA, Grimm NB, Cole Ekberg ML: Opportunities and challenges for managing nitrogen in urban stormwater: a review and synthesis. Ecol Eng 2010,36(13):1507–1519.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Fuerhacker M, Haile TM, Monai B, Mentler A: Performance of a filtration system equipped with filter media for parking lot runoff treatment. Desalination 2011,275(3):118–125.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Ahammed MM, Meera V: Metal oxide/hydroxide-coated dual-media filter for simultaneous removal of bacteria and heavy metals from natural waters. J hazard mater 2010,181(9):788–793.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Eren E: Removal of lead ions by Unye (Turkey) bentonite in iron and magnesium oxide-coated forms. J hazard mater 2009,165(11):63–70.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Hsu J-C, Lin C-J, Liao C-H, Chen S-T: Removal of As (V) and As (III) by reclaimed iron-oxide coated sands. J hazard mater 2009,153(6):817–826.Google Scholar
- Boujelben N, Bouzid J, Elouear Z: Adsorption of nickel and copper onto natural iron oxide-coated sand from aqueous solutions: study in single and binary systems. J hazard mater 2009,163(9):376–382.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Ding C, Yang X, Liu W, Chang Y, Shang C: Removal of natural organic matter using surfactant-modified iron oxide-coated sand. J hazard mater 2010,174(13):567–572.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Yang X, Flynn R, von der Kammer F, Hofmann T: Quantifying the influence of humic acid adsorption on colloidal microsphere deposition onto iron-oxide-coated sand. Environ Pollut 2010,158(8):3498–3506.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Yang X, Flynn R, von der Kammer F, Hofmann T: Influence of ionic strength and pH on the limitation of latex microsphere deposition sites on iron-oxide coated sand by humic acid. Environ Pollut 2011,159(9):1896–1904.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Boujelben N, Bouzid J, Elouear Z, Feki M, Jamoussi F, Montiel A: Phosphorus removal from aqueous solution using iron coated natural and engineered sorbents. J hazard mater 2008,151(13):103–110.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Alkhazan MMK, Saddiq AAN: The effect of magnetic field on the physical, chemical and microbiological properties of the lake water in Saudi Arabia. J EvolBiol Res 2010,2(3):7–14.Google Scholar
- Tomska A, Wolny L: Enhancement of biological wastewater treatment by magnetic field exposure. Desalination 2008,222(21):368–373.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Liu S, Yang F, Meng F, Chen H, Gong Z: Enhanced anammox consortium activity for nitrogen removal: Impacts of static magnetic field. J biotechnol 2008,138(1):96–102.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Lebkowska M, Rutkowska-Narożniak A, Pajor E, Pochanke Z: Effect of a static magnetic field on formaldehyde biodegradation in wastewater by activated sludge. Biogeosciences 2011,102(14):8777–8782.Google Scholar
- Khiadani M, Foroughi M, Amin MM: Improving urban run-off quality using iron oxide nanoparticles with magnetic field. Desalin Water Treat 2013,58(3):1–5.Google Scholar
- Mostafa M, Chen Y-H, Jean J-S, Liu C-C, Lee Y-C: Kinetics and mechanism of arsenate removal by nanosized iron oxide-coated perlite. J hazard mater 2011,187(15):89–95.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- AWWA (American Water Work Accocation): Standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater. 21st edition. Washington DC: AWWA; 2005.Google Scholar
- Lai C, Lo S, Chiang H: Adsorption/desorption properties of copper ions on the surface of iron-coated sand using BET and EDAX analyses. Chemosphere 2000,41(14):1249–1255.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Scholes L, Revitt DM, Ellis JB: A systematic approach for the comparative assessment of stormwater pollutant removal potentials. J environ manage 2008,88(3):467–478. 10.1016/j.jenvman.2007.03.003View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Hatt BE, Fletcher TD, Deletic A: Treatment performance of gravel filter media: implications for design and application of stormwater infiltration systems. Water Res 2007,41(12):2513–2524. 10.1016/j.watres.2007.03.014View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Waseem M, Mustafa S, Naeem A, Koper G, Shah K: Cd < sup > 2 + </sup > sorption characteristics of iron coated silica. Desalination 2011,277(7):221–226.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Achak M, Mandi L, Ouazzani N: Removal of organic pollutants and nutrients from olive mill wastewater by a sand filter. J environ manage 2009,90(3):2771–2779.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Gupta V, Saini V, Jain N: Adsorption of As (III) from aqueous solutions by iron oxide-coated sand. J Colloid Interface Sci 2005,288(4):55–60.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.