Efficient removal of Eriochrome black-T from aqueous solution using NiFe2O4 magnetic nanoparticles
© Moeinpour et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2014
Received: 8 June 2013
Accepted: 27 July 2014
Published: 27 August 2014
The magnetic NiFe2O4 nanoparticles have been synthesized and used as adsorbents for removal of an azo dye, Eriochrome black-T (EBT) from aqueous solution. The NiFe2O4 nanoparticles were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM), Transmission electron microscope (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectra (FTIR). The adsorption studies were carried out under various parameters, such as pH, adsorbent dosage, contact time and initial dye concentration. The experimental results show that the percentage of adsorption increases with an increase in the adsorbent dosage. The maximum adsorption occurred at the pH value of 6.0. The equilibrium uptake was increased with an increase in the initial dye concentration in solution. Adsorption kinetic data were properly fitted with the pseudo-second-order kinetic model. The experimental isotherms data were analyzed using Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm equations. The best fit was obtained by the Langmuir model with high correlation coefficients (R2 = 0.9733) with a maximum monolayer adsorption capacity of 47.0 m g/g.
KeywordsDecolorization Adsorption Eriochrome black-T NiFe2O4
Organic dyes are widely used in various fields and seriously induce water pollution. Most of the industrial dyes are toxic, carcinogenic, and teratogen . Moreover, they are very stable to light, temperature and microbial attack, making them recalcitrant compounds. From an environmental point of view, the removal of synthetic dyes is of great concern. Among several chemical and physical methods, adsorption process is one of the effective techniques that have been successfully employed for color removal from wastewater . In recent years, magnetic nanoparticles have attracted much attention because of their unique magnetic properties and widespread application in different fields such as mineral separation magnetic storage devices, catalysis, magnetic refrigeration system, heat transfer application in drug delivery system, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), cancer therapy, and magnetic cell separation -. Magnetic separation has been gradually regarded as a rapid and effective technique for separating magnetic particles ,. It has been used for many applications in biochemistry, cell biology, analytical chemistry, mining, and environmental technology . The advantages of this separation technology are that the harmful ingredients together with the magnetic particles can be eliminated from the polluted system by a simple magnetic field. The application of magnetic nanoparticles in waste water treatment is becoming an interesting area of research. Nanoparticle exhibit good adsorption efficiency especially due to higher surface area and greater active sites for interaction with metallic species and dyes and can easily be synthesized; several researches have used it as an adsorbent -. Among the various magnetic nanoparticles, most of them inevitably have the drawback of small adsorption capacity, and especially inefficient regeneration of the adsorbents, which limits their practical application. Ni ferrites with general formula (AB2O4) are one of the most versatile magnetic materials as they have high saturation magnetization, high Curie temperature, chemical stability and relatively high permeability . In the present paper, NiFe2O4 magnetic nanoparticles have been used for removal of Eriochrome black-T (EBT) which is used for dyeing silk, wool, nylon multifibers after pretreatment with chromium salts. Pure EBT is also used as an indicator in complexometric titrations for determination of Ca2+, Mg2+ and Zn2+ ions and for biological staining. This dye is hazardous as such and its degradation products like Naphtaquinone are still more carcinogenic. A literature survey showed that only few papers have raised the removal of EBT ,-. Therefore we became interested to develop NiFe2O4 as an efficient and low-cost adsorbent for removing this azo dye from aqueous solution.
Materials and methods
All chemicals were obtained commercially and were used as received. Double distilled water was used throughout. X-ray diffraction analysis was carried out using a XRD model Siemens D-5000 diffractometer with Cu Kα radiation (γ = 1.5406 A°) at room temperature. Surface morphology and particle size were studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) using a Hitachi S-4800 SEM instrument. Transmission electron microscope (TEM) observation was performed using Hitachi H-7650 microscope at 80 KV. FT-IR spectra were determined as KBr pellets on a Bruker model 470 spectrophotometer.
Preparation of the NiFe2O4
The solution of metallic salts FeCl3 (160 mL, 1 M) and NiCl2 (40 mL, 1 M) was poured as quickly as possible into the boiling alkaline solution [NaOH (1000 mL, 1 M)] under vigorous stirring. Then the solution was cooled and continuously stirred for 90 min. The resulting precipitate was then purified by a four times repeated centrifugation (4000-6000 rpm, 20 min) and decantation.
Results and discussion
Characterization of NiFe2O4 magnetic nanoparticles
Adsorption and removal of dye from aqueous solution
At pH < 7, -Ni-Fe-O-H2+ is the dominant species. These species having high positive charge density make the negative charged dye (EBT) adsorption favorable due to electrostatic attraction. However, at pH > 7, -Ni- Fe-OH is the dominant species in NiFe2O4. Such deprotonated species undergo electrostatic repulsion for negative charged dye. This causes decreased dye adsorption .
It is obvious from the data that adsorption capacity of EBT dye increases (Figure 8), but the percent removal of EBT decreases with the increase in initial concentration, suggesting that the adsorption of EBT on to NiFe2O4 is highly dependent on initial dye concentration. Because, the total number of available adsorption sites is fixed for a given adsorbent dose.
A plot ofversusgives a straight line, with a slope ofand intercept.
A plot of log q e versus log Ce gives a straight line of slope 1/n and intercept log KF.
Ifthen the adsorption is favorable. Ifthe adsorption bond becomes weak and unfavorable adsorption occurs.
Isotherm and kinetic model parameters for the EBT adsorption on NiFe 2 O 4 magnetic nanoparticles
KF (mg1-(1/n) L1/n g-1)
Maximum adsorption capacities of EBT from aqueous media using various adsorbents
NiFe2O4 magnetic nanoparticles with average size less than 50 nm in the diameter have been synthesized for removal of an azo dye from water. The prepared magnetic nanoparticles can be well dispersed in the aqueous solution and easily separated from the solution using an external magnet after adsorption. The adsorption capacity for EBT in the concentration range studied is 32.41 mg g-1. The process of purifying water pollution presented here is clean and safe using the magnetic nanoparticles. Therefore, this adsorbent was found to be useful and valuable for controlling water pollution due to dyes.
The authors acknowledge the Islamic Azad University-Bandar Abbas and Kerman Branches for financial support of this study.
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