The creation of pollution mapping and measurement of ambient concentration of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide with passive sampler
© Akdemir; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2014
Received: 17 January 2013
Accepted: 27 July 2014
Published: 6 August 2014
Measurements of nitrogen and sulfur dioxide using passive sampler over 12 months in Samsun, Turkey, are compared with SO2 and NO2 concentrations obtained from a co-located chemiluminescence analyzer. The concentrations of Sulfur and nitrogen dioxide in the ambient air during the period from November 2009 to September 2010 are analyzed.
The highest value for annual NO2 and SO2 averages of passive sampler was 29.65 μg/m3 and 21.01 μg/m3 for exposures of 2-weeks at an industrial site. The maximum monthly concentration for SO2 was observed at the 10th measurement station with 44.19 μg/m3 for August. The maximum monthly concentration for NO2 was observed on the 3rd measurement station with 42.83 μg/m3 for November. A negative correlation between nitrogen dioxide concentrations and temperature (R2 = −0.5489) was estimated. A positive correlation between nitrogen dioxide measurement with passive sampler and continuous measurement (R2 = 0.6571) was estimated.
KeywordsPassive sampler Sulfur dioxide Nitrogen dioxide
Where; F is the molar flux (μg.cm−2.min−1), D is the diffusion coefficient (cm2/min), C is the concentration (μg.cm−3), and L is the diffusion path (cm). The contaminant concentration kept in the passive sampler depends of the period of atmosphere exposure, quantity of total gas transfer collected in the passive sampler tube, geometric structure of the tube and diffusion coefficient, ambient temperature, ambient humidity, sorbent strength and face velocity. Passive sampler is a preferred method since it does not require power supply, has cost-efficient investment, light, simple analysis procedure as well as not requiring calibration, and suitable for simultaneous multipoint measurement of ambient air pollution. Passive samplers are extremely useful to assess long-term concentration trends (e.g., yearly) and are small, light, re-usable, and soundless –. Nitrogen dioxide has an irritant effect on the respiratory organs, and long exposures can increasingly lead to airway disorders, such as chronic bronchitis . The major health impact of sulfur dioxide include effects on breathing, respiratory illness, weakness of lung defenses, increase in the effects of existing respiratory and cardiovascular disease, and death . Explanations of effects of pressure, temperature, and wind speed on the samplers for NO2 and SO2 have been reported ,. Diffusive sampling can be used if the average, instead of the real-time, pollutant concentration is adequate for the purpose of monitoring .
The Industrial Zone digital map of Samsun Tekkekoy District, scale 1:50000, is used at the GIS-software ArcGIS (version 9.2, ESRI, CA, USA). The measurement results were introduced in the ESRI Geographic Information System software ArcGIS and the extension geostatistical Analyst was used to obtain distribution maps. The geostatistical Analyst, an extension to ArcGIS, a product of the Environmental Systems Research Institute (ESRI), California, USA, can be applied to analyze the data from air quality monitoring networks and to generate maps of spatial distribution of the monitored air pollutants. Several spatial interpolation methods available were tested. The selected method was the geostatistical interpolation method-linear interpolation for commonly used.
Measurement points and coordinates
Properties of passive samplers
Nitrogen Dioxide, NO2
Sulfur Dioxide, SO2
DIF 100 RTU
DIF 600 RTU
% 20 Triethanolamine/Deionized Water
Method of Analysis
71 mm height,
71 mm height,
11 mm internal diameter
11 mm internal diameter
Duration of Exposure
Amount of Air Intake
Average Measurement Accuracy
Lower Detecting Limit
TS EN 13528/1-3
TS EN 13528/1-3
In order to compare passive samplers with the results of uninterrupted system measurement method operated with chemical optical spectroscopic methods, the data of the measurement station owned by the Ministry of Environment and Forestry was used (Station No.3). The Station No.3 where the reference method chemiluminescence and UV Fluorescence method for automatic measurement of NO2 and SO2 concentrations and are in use. An automatic ambient SO2 analyzer (AF22M, Environnement S.A, France) and a ambient NO2 analyzer (AC32M, Environnement S.A, France) were used to measure the average concentrations of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide. The fixed measurement station data was obtained from Air Quality Monitoring Network database. The data were compiled as 14-day average data and then compared with the passive sampler readings.
The measurements started on 18.10.2009 and were completed on 19.09.2010. The measurements were made at total 10 measurement stations. Measurements were performed twice each month to account for the seasonally changing climatic conditions. The passive samplers were located far from walls and 2.0 m above the ground. While selecting the locations of passive samplers used for the measurements, several particulars were taken into consideration such as; exactly determining the industrial contamination in the region, taking into consideration the impact areas by bearing in mind the dominant wind direction, taking into consideration the impacts of significant point contaminants, preventing the impact of pollution caused by vehicles, minimizing the intervention on parks and of wind, comparing the results with uninterrupted measurement system and ensuring ease and safety of passive sampler installation.
Results and discussion
Samsun Çarşamba airPort meteorology station inputs (October, 2009 - September 2010)
Monthly average inputs
Wind direction (o)
Wind speed (m/s)
Relative humidity (%)
The correlation between NO2 and SO2 concentrations and meteorological parameters like air temperature, wind speed, and relative humidity was also calculated for the Carşamba Airport Meteorology Station. Figure 11 shows that air temperature is the highest correlation of NO2. The other parameters (wind speed, wind direction, and relative humidity) is a bad correlation of NO2 and SO2, which plays an important role in the distance from the meteorology station. Therefore, the results of correlation of wind speed, wind direction and relative humidity correlation had not been given in here.
The uninterrupted measurement station values and passive sampler readings are compared at the measurement station of the Ministry of Forestry and Water Works. A correlation of 69.24% is determined during the comparisons. When the value is corrected according to this correlation, the annual nitrogen dioxide average is calculated as 42.36 μg/m3. This value for NO2 was below the national air quality standard. But, was above the air quality standard of the European Union. However, as mentioned on the literature, meteorological parameters have significant impact on the correlation and it was not possible to make meteorological measurements at the measurement location during this study.
When the digital map regarding the nitrogen dioxide measurements are reviewed, it is observed that the highest level of pollution is at measurement station of Station No.3 and expands around from that location. Besides, the nitrogen dioxide values of the measurement point Number 5 at Yesilyurt Port Administration vary between 26 to 29 μg/m3.
It is observed that the nitrogen dioxide is intensified at locations 1, 2, 5 and 10 on the west side, starting from measurement station number 3 and expanded towards the Black Sea from location 5 or towards the inner regions of Tekkekoy from location 3.
When the passive samplers are compared with uninterrupted measurement results at the measurement location number 3, in terms of sulfur dioxide, a correlation could not be established. Since the results obtained from both passive samplers and uninterrupted measurements are significantly low, we should consider the possibility of errors arising from factors having an impact on sulfur dioxide measurements and devices used. The reason for this, the sulfur dioxide concentration effected not only passive sampler measurements but also meteorological parameters.
It is observed that the sulfur dioxide distribution heads from south to north-west, towards the Black Sea from measurement station number 5.
This work was financed by a scholarship of the Ondokuz Mayıs University for support of Scientific Research (Project No. PYO.MUH.1901.09.00). The author thank to Assistant Professor Aziz Şişman, Assistant Professor Nevzat Beyazıt, and Serkan Cengel for preparing of digital mapping. The author thankfully acknowledge KOSGEB, SAMGAZ, ETI Copper Inc., Blacksea Agricultural Research Institute, Milangaz, Ulusoy Maritime High School, Tekkeköy Municipality, and Yeşilyurt Company.
- Akdemir A: An Investigation of the Relationshios with Meteorological Parameters and Monitoring of Air Quality Parameters in Organized Industrial Region of Samsun, PhD Thesis. Ondokuz Mayis University Environmental Engineering Department; 2007.
- Official Gazette: Air Quality Assessment and Management Legislation, No.26898. Ankara Turkey: 2008. ., [http://www.csb.gov.tr/turkce/index.php?Sayfa=mevzuat]
- Directive 2008/50/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 21 May 2008 on ambient air quality and cleaner air for Europe Official J L 2008, 152: 1–44. online at [[http://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/?uri=celex:32008L0050] http://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/?uri=celex:32008L0050]
- WHO (World Health Organization): Air Quality Guidelines Global Updates 2005. online at , [www.euro.who.int/__data/assets/pdf_file/0005/78638/E90038.pdf]
- NAAQS (National Ambient Air Quality Standards). 2010. online at , [http://www.epa.gov/air/criteria.html]
- Palmes ED, Gunnison AF, Mattio JD, Tomczyk C: Personal sampler for nitrogen dioxide. Am Ind Hyg Assoc J 1976, 37: 570–577. 10.1080/0002889768507522View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Cape JN: Use of passive diffusion tubes for measuring concentration of nitrogen dioxide in air. Crit Rev Anal Chem 2009, 29: 289–310. 10.1080/10408340903001375View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Seethapathy S, Gorecki T, Li X: Passive sampling in environmental analysis. J Chromatogr A 2008, 1184: 234–253. 10.1016/j.chroma.2007.07.070View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Afif C, Dutot AL, Jambert C, Abbound M, Gerard JA, Farah W, Perros PE, Rizk T: Statistical approach for te characterization of NO 2 concentrations in Beirut. Air Qual Atmos Health 2009, 2(2):57–67. 10.1007/s11869-009-0034-2View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Ferm M, Svanberg PA: Cost-efficient techniques for urban and background measurements of SO 2 and NO 2 . Atmos Environ 1998, 32: 1377–1381. 10.1016/S1352-2310(97)00170-2View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Caballero S, Esclapez R, Galindo N, Mantilla E, Crespo J: Use of passive sampling network for the determination of urban NO 2 Spatitemporal variations. Atmos Environ 2012. doi:10.1016/j.atmosenv.2012.08.071.Google Scholar
- Ukpebor EE, Ahonkhal SI, Heydtman H: NO2 measurement with passive sampler:assessment of the sensitivity of two types of palmes diffusion tubes for NO2. Intern, J Environ, Studies 2004, 61(1):67–71. 10.1080/0020723032000130043View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Taşdemir Y: Winter season SO 2 measurement in Bursa and comparison with rural and urban area values. Turk J Environ Sci 2001, 25: 279–287.Google Scholar
- Banerjee T, Singh SB, Srivastava RK: Development and performance evaluation of statistical models correlating air pollutants and meteorological variables at Pantnagar, India. Atmos Res 2011, 99: 505–517. 10.1016/j.atmosres.2010.12.003View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Lozano A, Usero J, Vanderlinden E, Raez J, Contreras J, Navarrete B, Bakouri HE: Optimization of the design of air quality monitoring networks and its application to NO2 and O3 in Jaen Spain. Microchem J 2010, 96: 406–411. doi:10.1016/j.microc.2010.07.002 10.1016/j.microc.2010.07.002View ArticleGoogle Scholar
This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd.